linux 常用命令(4)--grep
User Image linux 常用命令(4)--grep 2019-01-08

一 常用

1.grep '[g-z]\{7\}' *.log 正则搜索 当前目录下已log结尾的文件中七位在g到z中间的字母

2.grep ^$  filename  查找文件中的空行

3. grep -o 'password' 只显示匹配的部分而不是整行

二 用法

Usage: grep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...
Search for PATTERN in each FILE.
Example: grep -i 'hello world' menu.h main.c

Pattern selection and interpretation:  模式选择和解释:

  -E, --extended-regexp     PATTERN is an extended regular expression 扩展正则表达式搜索
  -F, --fixed-strings       PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings 一组换行符分割的字符串
  -G, --basic-regexp        PATTERN is a basic regular expression (default) 普通正则表达式
  -P, --perl-regexp         PATTERN is a Perl regular expression Perl正则表达式
  -e, --regexp=PATTERN      use PATTERN for matching 使用模式匹配
  -f, --file=FILE           obtain PATTERN from FILE 从文件中获取模式
  -i, --ignore-case         ignore case distinctions 忽略大小写
  -w, --word-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole words 只匹配整个字符串
  -x, --line-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole lines 只匹配整行
  -z, --null-data           a data line ends in 0 byte, not newline

  -s, --no-messages         suppress error messages 控制错误信息
  -v, --invert-match        select non-matching lines  选择不匹配的行
  -V, --version             display version information and exit
      --help                display this help text and exit

Output control:
  -m, --max-count=NUM       stop after NUM selected lines 在选中的某行后停止
  -b, --byte-offset         print the byte offset with output lines 用输出行打印字节偏移量
  -n, --line-number         print line number with output lines 用输出线打印行号
      --line-buffered       flush output on every line
  -H, --with-filename       print file name with output lines 用输出线打印文件名
  -h, --no-filename         suppress the file name prefix on output 在输出上禁止文件名前缀
      --label=LABEL         use LABEL as the standard input file name prefix
  -o, --only-matching       show only the part of a line matching PATTERN 紧显示匹配的一行
  -q, --quiet, --silent     suppress all normal output 抑制所有正常输出
      --binary-files=TYPE   assume that binary files are TYPE;
                            TYPE is 'binary', 'text', or 'without-match'
  -a, --text                equivalent to --binary-files=text
  -I                        equivalent to --binary-files=without-match
  -d, --directories=ACTION  how to handle directories;
                            ACTION is 'read', 'recurse', or 'skip'
  -D, --devices=ACTION      how to handle devices, FIFOs and sockets;
                            ACTION is 'read' or 'skip'
  -r, --recursive           like --directories=recurse
  -R, --dereference-recursive  likewise, but follow all symlinks
      --include=FILE_PATTERN  search only files that match FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude=FILE_PATTERN  skip files and directories matching FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude-from=FILE   skip files matching any file pattern from FILE
      --exclude-dir=PATTERN  directories that match PATTERN will be skipped.
  -L, --files-without-match  print only names of FILEs with no selected lines
  -l, --files-with-matches  print only names of FILEs with selected lines
  -c, --count               print only a count of selected lines per FILE
  -T, --initial-tab         make tabs line up (if needed)
  -Z, --null                print 0 byte after FILE name

Context control:
  -B, --before-context=NUM  print NUM lines of leading context
  -A, --after-context=NUM   print NUM lines of trailing context
  -C, --context=NUM         print NUM lines of output context
  -NUM                      same as --context=NUM
      --colour[=WHEN]       use markers to highlight the matching strings;
                            WHEN is 'always', 'never', or 'auto'
  -U, --binary              do not strip CR characters at EOL (MSDOS/Windows)

When FILE is '-', read standard input.  With no FILE, read '.' if
recursive, '-' otherwise.  With fewer than two FILEs, assume -h.
Exit status is 0 if any line is selected, 1 otherwise;
if any error occurs and -q is not given, the exit status is 2.

Report bugs to:
GNU grep home page: <>
General help using GNU software: <>